Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Specifier flowchart

1. Is the predicate referential? That is to say, does it refer to something real and specific in the universe?

Yes → 2

No → 5

2. Is the referent already on the discourse stage, either because it has already been raised or because it lives there by default? Or, is the predicate specific and identifiable in the given context?

Yes → 3

No → 4

3. Does the referent need to be pointed out to specify it? Answer "no" if the referent is identifiable without pointing.

Yes → 8

No → 7

4. Is the amount/quantity of the referent indefinite, unknown, or irrelevant to the discourse? Or, is the referent a mass noun that is not specifically bounded in some way? Or, is the referent being mentioned without the intention of raising it to the discourse stage?

Yes → 10

No → 9

5. Is the referent an abstraction of the quality described by the predicate, whether theoretical or actual?

Yes → 6

No → 11

6. Is the referent a specific instantiation of the abstraction in question?

Yes → 13

No → 12

7. Use ka.

8. Use ti/to depending on deictic distance.

9. Use a.

10. Use hu.

11. Use po.

12. Use ko.

13. Use ko preceded by a specifier. Go back to question 1 and choose "Yes" to determine the correct specifier.

No comments: